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The ocean is a great global body full of liquid. The oceans remain above the mantle layer of the Earth. It is also the largest surface of the Earth. Approximately 71% of the surface of the Earth is covered by the oceans. The oceans are divided into various seas and principal oceans. The oceans the the main components of the hydrosphere which are the parts of carbon cycle and also the life on the Earth.

The extraterrestrial oceans substantially vary because of the compositions like the water of the oceans, brine, convecting ice and some other compounds.

According to the Geology, the ocean is basically the area of oceanic crust which is covered by the water. The oceanic crust is a thin layer made of the solidified volcanic basalt which covers the mantle of the Earth. The crust is thick but it does not have so much density. In this context, there are three oceans in the Earth. Such as: the Caspian Sea, the World Ocean and the Black Sea.

Types of oceans on the Earth:

71% of the Earth is the water and it contains five oceans including Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific, Indian and Southern. For a longer time, only four oceans of the earth are recognized officially, then in the Spring of the year 2000, the Southern ocean and its limits were established by the International Hydrographic Organization.

Though there are several oceans, but all the waters comprise one interconnected and global body of salt water. Sometimes, it is referred as the global ocean or the world ocean. The concept of the continuous water body with free interchange among their parts are provided a great importance in the study of oceanography.

The divisions of the major oceans:

The divisions of the major oceans are defined in part by various archipelagos, continents and some other criteria. The divisions are:

  • Pacific ocean- This ocean separates Australia and Asia from Americas
  • Indian ocean- It separates Australia and  Africa and this ocean washes upon the southern part of Asia
  • Atlantic ocean- This ocean separates America from Africa and Europe
  • Arctic ocean- The Arctic ocean is often considered as a sea of the Atlantic ocean and it covers a major part of Arctic and it also washes upon Eurasia and the northern part of North America.
  • Southern ocean- Sometimes, this ocean is considered to be an extended part of the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The ocean encircles the Antarctica.

Apart from these divisions, the Atlantic and Pacific oceans are also subdivided into the southern and northern portions by the equator. The smaller parts are known as the bays, seas, gulfs, straits and some other names.